Numéro spécial : Génération aléatoire de conditions météorologiques
Stochastic weather generators: an overview of weather type models
Journal de la société française de statistique, Volume 156 (2015) no. 1, pp. 101-113.

A recurrent issue encountered in environmental, ecological or agricultural impact studies in which climate is an important driving force is to provide fast and realistic simulations of atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind at a few specific locations, at daily or hourly temporal scales. Spatio-temporal dynamics and correlation structures among the variables of interest, as well as weather persistence and natural variability have to be reproduced accurately in a distributional sense. This quest leads to a large variety of so-called stochastic weather generators (WGs) in the literature. Here, we provide an up-to-date overview of weather type WG models. Weather types classically represent daily characteristics of the relevant atmospheric information at hand. There are many ways to build such weather states, either hidden or observed, and to infer their properties. This overview should help statisticians as well as meteorologists and climate product users to understand the probabilistic concepts and models behind weather type WGs, and to identify their advantages and limits.

Pour réaliser des études d’impact dans lesquelles le climat est un paramètre d’entrée important, un problème fréquemment rencontré consiste à produire des séries temporelles de variables climatiques telles que températures, précipitation, vent ou humidité relative, en plusieurs sites simultanément, au pas de temps journalier et parfois horaire. Ces séries doivent être faciles à générer. Elles doivent aussi être réalistes en ce sens que les distributions des statistiques liées à la dynamique spatio-temporelle, telles que les corrélation entre variables, la persistence temporelle et les différentes sources de variabilité doivent être correctement reproduites. De nombreux générateurs stochastiques de conditions météorologiques ont été proposés dans ce but. Dans cet article, nous proposons de passer en revue la classe particulière des générateurs stochastiques à base de types de temps. En règle générale, un type de temps est une caractérisation grossière des conditions atmosphériques journalières. Il existe de nombreuses façons de définir les types de temps, qu’ils soient observés ou cachés dans une structure latente, et d’en inférer leur propriétés. Cette revue a pour objet d’aider les statisticiens, les scientifiques du climat et les utilisateurs de produits climatiques à appréhender les concepts et modèles probabilistes utilisés dans les générateurs stochastiques de conditions météorologiques et d’en cerner les avantages et leurs limites.

Keywords: Stochastic Weather Generators, Precipitation, Regime Switching Models, Weather Type
Mot clés : Générateurs aléatoires de conditions météorologiques, Précipitations, Modèles à Changements de Régimes, Type de temps
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     title = {Stochastic weather generators: an overview of weather type models},
     journal = {Journal de la soci\'et\'e fran\c{c}aise de statistique},
     pages = {101--113},
     publisher = {Soci\'et\'e fran\c{c}aise de statistique},
     volume = {156},
     number = {1},
     year = {2015},
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     language = {en},
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Ailliot, Pierre; Allard, Denis; Monbet, Valérie; Naveau, Philippe. Stochastic weather generators: an overview of weather type models. Journal de la société française de statistique, Volume 156 (2015) no. 1, pp. 101-113.

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